Speculation is that they contained the soldier-emperor's account of the Roman-Dacian Wars. Here is the market hall, as it looks today. Temple of Castor and Pollux) that was completed in 484 B.C.E. A. Claridge, Rome: an Archaeological Guide 2nd ed. Beginning in the first century B.C.E., a new series of public spaces, also dubbed as fora (fora being the plural form of the Latin noun forum) began to be created. And you can see that the façade is actually not straight, but convex, convex: a convex façade, which is very interesting, curved façade, with an elaborate entranceway over here. Forum of Trajan- function. Constantine I officially relocated the administrative center of the Roman world to Constantinople in 330 C.E. The first of these, the Fabian arch (fornix Fabianus), was dedicated on the Sacra Via toward the eastern end of the Forum Romanum in 121 B.C.E., commemorating the military victories (and family) of Quintus Fabius Allobrogicus (Cicero pro Planc. This is the most famous scene from the column, in which we see a battle between the Romans, inside one of these forts that they’ve built. You can see it’s a conventional Roman temple: deep porch, freestanding columns, staircase, one staircase, façade orientation, just as we saw elsewhere. The fragments of the Severan plan provide valuable information about the design of this architectural complex and has led scholars to speculate that the inspiration for its design may have been the great market (macellum magnum) of the city that had likely been destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome in 64 C.E. Pontoon bridge with Roman soldiers (detail), Column of Trajan, Carrara marble, completed 113 C.E., Rome (photo: ElissaSCA © All rights reserved, by permission). The Forum of Trajan consists of a large open rectangular area, a basilica, Greek and Latin libraries, and a temple dedicated to Trajan after his death. And some scholars have suggested, and I think very convincingly, it’s an intriguing idea, that because this was located between two libraries, the likelihood–and that the Romans had scrolls–the likelihood is what we are dealing with here is one of these scrolls, sort of wrapped around the column, from base to top, unfurled and wrapped around the column from base to top, with the text removed, with images instead of text. This is a model of what we think the library may have looked like, or both of the libraries may have looked like from the outside — fairly smallish square buildings with a portico in the front, and then, most important, a balcony over here. They took this individual motif, and they replicated it throughout this building, over and over and over again, offering 150 possibilities. Even as the Forum Romanum changed over time, it remained an important space. Trajan’s column, erected in 113 CE, stands in Trajan's Forum in Rome and is a commemorative monument decorated with reliefs illustrating Roman emperor Trajan’s two military campaigns in Dacia (modern Romania). They are adding an intellectual element to the bath buildings, so that you can also go there if you want to read–if you want to go to the library and read Greek books, read Latin books–go to lectures, go to seminars, have conversations, intellectual conversations, are also beginning to happen here. He doesn’t want to do that, so he heroically, valiantly, takes his own life. Why would he have waited? It’s highly likely, because what forum have we seen, without a temple at the short end? Surely then our citizens will proclaim you as their best ruler, the Optimus Princeps. Ferentino Market Hall / Wikimedia Commons. These are not coincidental. C. Hülsen and J. This entrance gate, down here. For centuries, the Roman Forum ( Forum Romanum) was the civic, juridical, and social heart of the ancient city of Rome, a place where civic buildings, sacred buildings, and monuments were … It’s computer generated. You can already see, by looking at the plan, their location. So there’s this extension of the bath, from being just a place where you went for wellness essentially, to bathe and to relax and to have social interaction with your friends. Seven Hills of Rome (image, CC BY-SA 3.0), Situated astride the Tiber river, the site of Rome is noted for its low hills that are separated by deeply cut valleys. The sources claim that the Basilica Porcia (c. 184 B.C.E.) You can see that Trajan continues this interest in ornamentation that was characteristic of the Flavian period: very ornamental architectural decoration, very deeply carved, with a strong contrast between light and dark. Six horses in this particular case, and then on either side trophies, these tree trunks decorated with captured arms and armor. Baths of Trajan model / Dartmouth University, Creative Commons. The column carries an helical frieze of historical relief that provides a pictorial narrative of the events of Trajan’s wars in Dacia (101–102 and 105–106 C.E. Then a series of circles with blobs in them. So we can guess, I think quite accurately, that this must be the entranceway to the Basilica Ulpia. Remember the exedrae on either side of that temple, the embracing arms, that were new at that time, and an important component of the Forum of Augustus. And it also tells us something about his ambitions. We see this here: “Dedicated to those who fell and to those who carry on” here. If it’s open–it periodically closes, sometimes, if things are falling down–but if it’s open, that’s how one gets there. We are looking at the marble; you can see real marble and variegated marbles brought from all over the world. Gleerup, 1953-1973). The third century C.E. You have shopping–there are 150 shops in the Markets of Trajan. There’s been a lot of speculation; there’s nothing like this earlier in Roman art quite like this. Giovanni Battista Piranesi spent eight years researching the ancient ruins of Rome before completing his magnum opus, Le Antichità Romane. appollodorus of damascus. It’s likely that Trajan had the same idea in mind, but it’s a little strange, because wouldn’t he then have adopted him before his death? This is the Basilica Ulpia here. You can see how skilled they are in using ramps, with polygonal masonry, as well as sidewalks and stairs, so that you can make your way up with either alternative here. It was put up on the so-called Via Traiana, taking Trajan’s name, a road that was built from Rome to Benevento, and was opened during Trajan’s reign, and again, a compendium of all his accomplishments. In this way, Augustus portrayed himself as the ideal man to lead the Roman state; he was connected to Rome’s divine origins and he represented continuity with its republican tradition. A major earthquake in 847 C.E. The temple was rebuilt in 42 B.C.E. Reconstruction of the Forum of Trajan draftsman: Pirro Ligorio (Italian, ca. And you see again the Baths of Titus here, located right again on top of this area that originally belonged to Nero’s Domus Aurea. Recent excavation at the northeast corner of the Palatine Hill. Since the Tiber river tended to leave its banks regularly, the valley was prone to significant flooding, as a low saddle of land known as the Velabrum connects the forum valley to the riverine zone. View of the Forum of Trajan, c. 112 C.E.. Later medieval walls can be seen amidst the grass on the left; the upright columns of the Basilica Ulpia can be seen on the right in front of the larger Column of Trajan. The figures that are in the uppermost tier, of the main body of the forum, are depictions of captured Dacians; of Dacian prisoners brought back to Rome. The advent of the principate of Augustus (27 B.C.E. He had schemes as grandiose for public architecture, at one point, as for palatial architecture, but palatial architecture won out and he put all of his effort into the palace, on the Palatine Hill, and never realized any construction in this area. The Column of Trajan, flanked by the Latin and Greek libraries, and then over here the Temple to Divine Trajan. For centuries, the Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was the civic, juridical, and social heart of the ancient city of Rome, a place where civic buildings, sacred buildings, and monuments were to be both found and admired. He puts a temple to his patron goddess, Minerva, in that forum. Plotina, his wife, was–she had no children of her own; she was crazy about Hadrian, very much his sponsor, and wanted to see him succeed Trajan. And you’ll recall the so-called Esquiline Wing, which is the one wing of Nero’s Domus Aurea that is still preserved underground. emperor trajan. But look again in the way in which they’re represented. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. The bulk of the forum is accessible to visitors who have the opportunity to experience one of the great documents of urban archaeology. What he did, however, at that time, was that he took the statues of Trajan that would’ve stood on this one, and Marcus Aurelius on the other, and replaced them with statues of Peter and Paul. So axiality and symmetry reigned supreme. And they are, of course, facing the southern end where the sun is, and that would, of course, help to heat the caldarium as well. meant to honor the German victories of Drusus and Germanicus (Tacitus Annales 2.64; CIL 6.911) and the emperor Hadrian restored the forum complex in the second century. So it’s very interesting. So it’s again this same message, giving back to the people the land that Nero had taken illegally from Rome during his reign. We’ve talked about this a lot: the colonization of the Roman world, Trajan extending the borders to their furthest most points. On axis with the swimming pool is the frigidarium, at F, and you can see, just like that of the Baths of Titus, it is a groin-vaulted room: a triple groin vaulted room, as you can see by the three x’s over the rectangular area. We see three openings, not arcuated openings but trabeated openings, straight lintels above. the Forum Romanum certainly continued to develop, but material remains of large-scale architecture have proven elusive and thus our understanding of the space during those centuries is less clear than in other periods. You can think back way to the beginning of the semester when we talked about Julius Caesar and his architecture, and his bragging that he had built a–or one of the authors of that period tells us that Julius Caesar had built a Temple to Mars, the biggest in the world. But it is, at his death, it is taken over by Nerva and renamed the Forum of Nerva. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. The visual program in the Forum of Augustus is complex. And this is very important, because we know that Apollodorus of Damascus was responsible for building a bridge over the Danube River. So Trajan continues the Flavian tradition of bringing marbles from all over, from places outside of Italy–from Africa, from Asia Minor, from Egypt and so on–for the decoration of these buildings, and an interest in multicolored marbles as facing. View of the Forum of Trajan, c. 112 C.E.. Later medieval walls can be seen amidst the grass on the left; the upright columns of the Basilica Ulpia can be seen on the right in front of the larger Column of Trajan. and again after 283 C.E. The successes of Rome and her growing empire during the second and first centuries B.C.E. Imperial Fora. Now these Baths of Trajan are very interesting in all kinds of ways. It is especially significant to note that this is a public space and that Vespasian’s generosity granted the populace of Rome access not only to a beautiful, monumental square, but also to art and the spoils of military victory (including spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem). In the middle ages the fora were spaces re-used for building materials, housing, industry, and burials. The major difference, of course, between the two, that this has sculpture only on the inside, and sparingly in the center and around the frieze, and this has much more sculpture, again telling us in much greater detail a list–or describing a list of the great accomplishments of Trajan. Title: Forum of Trajan (Above: Basilica Ulpia interior, top right: Basilica Ulpia exterior,bottom right: Trajan markets) Artist: Apollodorus of Damascus Date: 106 - 112 C.E. The monument that is considered to be the final ancient structure erected in the Forum Romanum is a re-purposed monumental column set in place by the emperor Phocas in August of 608 C.E. So a victory, not only one of his great victories, military victories, but also victory over death. Declining imperial fortunes led inevitably to urban decay at Rome. The Column of Trajan, inaugurated in 113 C.E., is a main feature of the Forum of Trajan and is, in its own right, a masterwork of Roman art. This sacred route was used for certain state-level ceremonies, especially the celebration of the victory ritual known as the Roman triumph. At the end again, the column, surrounded by the Greek and Latin libraries, the temple over here at the end. Thus the forum slowly yielded its sacro-civic functions to more mundane concerns like pasturage—in fact it eventually came to be known as the “Campo Vaccino” (cow field). And they usually, when the statue was done, they would usually obviously take these away, carve them away, which they didn’t do. We have seen it in painting–Cubiculum at the Met, over here, for example–this breaking the triangular pediment to allow something else to show through. Addressing the problems of seasonal rains and flooding proved more challenging—the valley required a landfill project as well as the construction of a drainage canal to manage standing water. So an incredible bathing establishment, and one that has taken us a step further in the evolution of imperial bath architecture in Rome, and will serve as the major model for the two most famous and much better preserved baths in Rome, and that is the Baths of Caracalla and the Baths of Diocletian, which we’ll look at later in the semester. The emperor Constantius II, visiting Rome in the mid-fourth century C.E., was amazed by the Forum of Trajan, something he considered “a construction unique under the heavens” (Ammianus Marcellinus 16.10.15). During the Middle Ages ancient structures provided reusable buildings materials, as well as reusable foundations, for Medieval structures. And then all the other rooms of the bath were displayed around those, in a symmetrical way. The architect Apollodorus of Damascus was responsible for the innovative design. So this tells us something again about the grandiosity of the vision of Trajan, about the funds that he had at his disposal, and he got those funds, in large part, because of all these military victories in which he took all kinds of spoils and booty, which he used to fund his building campaigns in Rome. Elements of the model © 2008 The Regents of the University of California, © 2011 Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, © 2012 Frischer Consulting. Between the libraries stands the celebrated Column of Trajan with a spiral frieze commemorating the emperor’s military victories in Dacia (modern Romania) and reaching a height of 125 feet. And then you can see that is surrounded by columns. All rights reserved. These new Imperial Fora in some cases provided additional space and, in turn, shifted attention away from the Forum Romanum. Colligendos atque edendos curavit Iosephus Lugli, 8 v. (Rome: Università di Roma, Istituto di topografia antica, 1952-1965). The fora were initially built between c. 54 B.C.E. A pedestrian walkway, the Via Alessandrina, also allows for an excellent (and free) view of Trajan's Forum. (Historia Augusta – Hadrian 19.9). Throughout the Forum of Trajan the theme of military victory, and its celebration, permeate the monumental decorative programs. This is a fragment of what we think was a frieze, in the Basilica Ulpia, that depicts victories, female personifications of victory, winged, either kneeling at candelabra, or over here, this woman, kneeling on the back of a bull. I’m not going to go into this in detail, but I want to quickly show you some of the scenes, because again they can be revealing, from the point of view of architecture. One of the key tenets of Vespasian’s new administration was the restoration of the city, including the construction of new buildings and monuments. When Trajan became emperor, he decided that he would again focus on public architecture, and that he would build a forum like none other before it. So he does continue this Flavian interest in very elaborate architectural decoration. But more than that, it had something to do with the succession. The Roman interest in monumental, commemorative monuments, now referred to as triumphal arches, would soon follow. Study and excavation—as well as the hugely important obligation of preservation—continue in the Forum Romanum today. Again, he obviously did not choose buildings of Nero, many of which had already been destroyed, in any case, but rather looked back further, in fact, dug deep into the Republic, a time, a simpler time in many respects, and a time prior to the shenanigans of the monarchically minded emperors like Nero and Domitian, and he restored buildings from the Republic and from the Augustan period. The column carries an helical frieze of historical relief that provides a pictorial narrative of the events of Trajan’s wars in Dacia (101–102 and 105–106 C.E. E. Gjerstad, Early Rome, 7 v. (Lund: C.W.K. The Roman forum was located between two of the seven columns of Rome, the Capitoline and the Palatine Hill. They are all with helmets and shields. And this large rectangular precinct has a series of rooms around it, as you can see, real rooms, and rooms that take all kinds of shapes. It’s an incredible place to wander, by the way. This left the square itself open for the installation of decorative water features and plantings which are seen both archaeologically and on fragments of the Severan marble plan of the city of Rome (forma urbis Romae) that was mounted in the forum complex in the third century C.E. And so he begins to do that. I just want to show you one last monument, and make one basic point about it, that really has more to do with the transition from Trajan to Hadrian, than anything else. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). Augustus also followed Julius Caesar in creating yet another new forum space beyond the Forum Romanum that was named the Forum of Augustus. You can see by looking at the plan of the Imperial Fora as a whole that not only did Trajan take the Empire to its furthest extent, this is the last forum that was added to the Imperial Fora, in Rome. As Augustus had emerged as the sole leader of the Roman state, it was important for him to create and display messages of continuity and stability. Subsequent emperors continued to elaborate upon the Forum of Augustus. This drawing shows an ancient sculpture now in Tunis that may be a depiction of the actual pedimental group from Mars Ultor (possible identifications left to right: Venus, Cupid, Mars, and Divus Iulius).
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